It has non-multiplexed data and address bus. The size of data bus is bit whereas the size of address bus is bit. It was invented in February by Intel. Further in , Intel produced upgraded version of which was a bit microprocessor. Now the question arises what are the factors that make more advantageous than microprocessor?

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It has non-multiplexed data and address bus. The size of data bus is bit whereas the size of address bus is bit. It was invented in February by Intel. Further in , Intel produced upgraded version of which was a bit microprocessor. Now the question arises what are the factors that make more advantageous than microprocessor? It has non-multiplexed address and data bus that reduces operational speed.

The addressable memory in case of is 16 MB. It offers an additional adder for address calculation. The performance per clock cycle of is almost twice when compared with or Operating modes of microprocessor operates in two modes: In real address mode, this microprocessor acts as a version of which is quite faster. Also without any special modification, the instruction programmed for can be executed in It offers memory addressability of 1 MB of physical memory. The protected virtual-address mode of supports multitasking because multiple programs can be executed using virtual memory.

This mode of offers memory addressability of 16 MB of physical memory along with 1 GB of virtual memory. As using virtual memory, space for other programs can be saved.

Sometimes bulky programs also do exist that cannot be stored in physical memory, so virtual memory is utilized in order to execute large programs. This mode is used in , so that in case of memory failure in real address mode, it can stay in protected manner. What is virtual memory?

Virtual memory is that part of hard disk which can be utilized for storing large instructions inside the system. This extra memory can be addressed by the computer other than the physical memory. When there exists an instruction that is to be loaded in the memory but whose size is greater than the provided physical memory. Then some part of hard disk is used in order to store that instruction, which is known as virtual memory. Architecture of Microprocessor The figure below shows the architectural representation of microprocessor: As we have already mentioned earlier that it is a bit microprocessor thus holds a bit data bus and bit address bus.

Also, unlike the microprocessor, it offers non-multiplexed address and data bus, which increases the operating speed of the system. The CPU, central processing unit of microprocessor, consists of 4 functional block: Address Unit Instruction Unit Execution Unit Firstly, the physical address from where the data or instruction is to be fetched is calculated, by the address unit.

Once the physical address is calculated then the calculated address is handed over to the bus unit. More specifically we can say, that the calculated address is loaded on the address bus of the bus unit.

This address specifies the memory location from where the data or instruction is to be fetched. The fetching of data through the memory is done through the data bus. For faster execution of instruction, the BU fetches the instructions in advanced from the memory and stores them in the queue.

This is done through the bus control module. As we have discussed that the prefetched instructions are stored in a 6-byte instruction queue. This instruction queue then further sends the instruction to the instruction unit. The instruction unit on receiving the instructions now starts decoding the instruction.

As instructions are stored in prefetched queue thus the decoder continuously decodes the fetched instructions and stores them into decoded instruction queue. Now after the instructions gets decoded then further these are needed to be executed. So, the instructions from decoded instruction queue are fed to the execution unit. Once the execution of the instruction is performed then the result of the operation i.

As we have already discussed that is just a modified version of The register set in is same as that of microprocessor. It holds 8 general purpose registers of 16 bit each. It contains 4 segment register each of bit. Also has status and control register and instruction pointer. Interrupt of Microprocessor We know that whenever an interrupt gets generated in a system, then the execution of the current program is stopped and the execution gets transferred to the new program location where the interrupt is generated.

But once the interrupt gets executed then then in order to get back to the original program, its address as well as machine state must be stored in the stack. Basically there exist 3 categories of interrupt in microprocessor: External interrupt Hardware interrupt INT instruction interrupt Software interrupt Internally generated interrupt due to some exceptions External or hardware initiate interrupt are those interrupts that gets generated due to an external input.

And are basically of two types: Maskable interrupt Non-maskable interrupt Sometimes when multiple programs are allowed to be executed in a system, then this leads to generation of INT instruction, and such an interrupt is known as software interrupt. Another interrupt in exist due to some unusual conditions or situations generated in the system that leads to prevention of further execution of the current instruction.

So, this is all about the modes of operation, architecture and interrupts of microprocessor. You Might Also Like:.


Microprocessor - 8086 Overview

Even the hardware of these microprocessors is similar to the earlier versions. This chapter presents an overview of each microprocessor and points out the differences or enhancements that are present in each version. Intel has added four new versions of each of these embedded controllers to its lineup of microprocessors. Detail the differences between the various versions of the and embedded controllers. Develop software using the enhancements provided in these microprocessors.


Intel 80186

Description[ edit ] Features and performance[ edit ] The series was generally intended for embedded systems , as microcontrollers with external memory. Therefore, to reduce the number of integrated circuits required, it included features such as clock generator , interrupt controller , timers , wait state generator, DMA channels, and external chip select lines. Multiply and divide also showed great improvement being several times as fast as on the original and multi-bit shifts were done almost four times as quickly as in the A useful immediate mode was added for the push, imul, and multi-bit shift instructions.

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