Discussions Studies of the antiplasmodial effect of A. The choice of these plants was based on previous reports of their antiplasmodial property [ 30 , 31 ]. Again, the remarkable activity of quinine and other related drugs and the success of artemisinin stimulated the search for new plant derived antimalarial drugs [ 19 ]. However, reported cases of drug resistance to these drugs made the search and development of alternative antimalarial drugs inevitable [ 32 ].
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Discussions Studies of the antiplasmodial effect of A. The choice of these plants was based on previous reports of their antiplasmodial property [ 30 , 31 ]. Again, the remarkable activity of quinine and other related drugs and the success of artemisinin stimulated the search for new plant derived antimalarial drugs [ 19 ].
However, reported cases of drug resistance to these drugs made the search and development of alternative antimalarial drugs inevitable [ 32 ]. Phytochemical analysis of the stem bark extract of A. These phytochemicals were previously reported by [ 19 , 33 , 34 ]. These phytochemical compounds were also reported in another species, A.
The presence of similar phytochemicals was recorded in A. These constituents have been found in other natural products which exhibited antimalarial activity [ 36 ]. Plants that contain many phytochemicals with biological activities including alkaloids and flavonoids could serve as sources of antimalarial drugs [ 37 ].
Therefore, the antiplasmodial activity of A. The ethanolic stem bark extract of A. The LD50 of ethanolic stem bark of A. This indicated that the mice were safe with the different doses of the ethanolic stem extracts administered to them.
Similar result was recorded using the methanolic stem bark extract of another species of the plant, A. Similar result was reported within 30 minutes to 1 hour after administration of the ethanolic leaf extract of another species of the plant, A. The results implied that the ethanolic stem bark of A. Parasitaemia in the infected mice was monitored in all the groups using thick and thin blood films made from the tail vein of the mice.
The percentage average parasitaemia showed high level of infection in all the groups after five days of inoculation of P. This result is consistent with previous reports of high percentage parasitaemia in P. The high level of parasitaemia is an important feature of Plasmodium infection which could result in severe anaemia. The starting parasitaemia for the three replicates B1, B2, and B3 before administration of ethanolic stem bark extracts of A.
After administration of extract, the results obtained from the present study showed that the ethanolic stem bark extract of A. This result suggested that the extract possesses some active phytochemical compounds that have direct effects on the parasites and the effect is dose-dependent [ 19 ]. The chemosuppressive activity of These results are indication that plants of the genus Anthocleista possess phytochemical constituents that have antiparasitic property.
The mechanism of action of these extracts of Anthocleista species was however said to be similar to that of chloroquine, a standard antimalarial drug which induced the destruction of the asexual forms of the Plasmodium parasite [ 42 ]. This does not however rule out the chloroquine resistance to the Plasmodium species of mammals. Moreover, the fact that some rural settlements in Africa still rely more on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of malaria led to the identification of A.
Conclusion The result obtained in this study showed that ethanolic extract of the stem bark of A. This plant can be recommended for use since it possessed a high chemosuppressive effect against the malaria and can be obtained at relatively no cost from the forest.
Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. References 1. World Health Organization.
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Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information. Precautions Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information. Interactions with Anthocleista Vogelii Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information. When not to use Anthocleista Vogelii Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information.
Anthocleista vogelii Planch.