In seinem Werk behandelt Sophokles das moralisch gerechtfertigte Aufbegehren gegen staatliche Ordnung bzw. Gewalt bei Strafe des eigenen Unterganges. Kreon nimmt in diesem Werk die Stellung eines Tyrannen ein. Ein Tyrann konnte durchaus ein friedlicher Herrscher sein z. Damit wird die Welt der Politik einzig dem Mann zugesprochen, die Frau hat hier nichts zu sagen. Unter Sittlichkeit versteht er die unmittelbare Identifikation des Individuums mit der Gemeinschaft ohne reflektierenden Abstand.
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Synopsis[ edit ] Antigone is made up of episodes literally, "between odes" separated by choral song and dance.
The choral odes have two main functions: they offer a reflection on the events unfolding, and they allow time for the three actors to change costumes. Creon , the new ruler of Thebes and brother of the former Queen Jocasta, has decided that Eteocles will be honored and Polynices will be in public shame. Antigone and Ismene are the sisters of the dead Polynices and Eteocles.
Ismene refuses to help her, not believing that it will actually be possible to bury their brother, who is under guard, but she is unable to stop Antigone from going to bury her brother herself. They cast the background story of the seven against Thebes into a mythic and heroic context. The leader of the chorus pledges his support out of deference to Creon. A sentry enters, fearfully reporting that the body has been given funeral rites and a symbolic burial with a thin covering of earth, though no one sees who actually committed the crime.
Creon, furious, orders the sentry to find the culprit or face death himself. The sentry leaves. In a very famous ode, the chorus praises the rule of law. This sets them against Antigone. This scene is the "Agon" or contest, central to many Greek plays. We see the two points of view in stark contrast. Creon returns, bringing Antigone with him. Creon questions her after sending the sentry away, and she does not deny what she has done.
She argues unflinchingly with Creon about the immorality of the edict and the morality of her actions. He summons her.
Ismene tries to confess falsely to the crime, wishing to die alongside her sister, but Antigone will not have it. Creon orders that the two women be imprisoned. The chorus sing of the troubles of the house of Oedipus.
Since all 3 actors were on stage at the end of the previous episode, this chorus is necessary so that one can change costume and appear as Haemon in the next episode. He initially seems willing to forsake Antigone, but when Haemon gently tries to persuade his father to spare Antigone, claiming that "under cover of darkness the city mourns for the girl", the discussion deteriorates, and the two men are soon bitterly insulting each other. When Creon threatens to execute Antigone in front of his son, Haemon leaves, vowing never to see Creon again.
The chorus sing of the power of love. Antigone is brought in under guard on her way to execution. She sings a lament. The chorus compares her to the goddess Niobe, who was turned into a rock, and say it is a wonderful thing to be compared to a goddess.
Antigone accuses them of mocking her. Creon decides to spare Ismene and to bury Antigone alive in a cave. By not killing her directly, he hopes to pay minimal respects to the gods. She is brought out of the house, and this time, she is sorrowful instead of defiant. She expresses her regrets at not having married and dying for following the laws of the gods.
She is taken away to her living tomb. The Chorus encourages Antigone by singing of the great women of myth who suffered. Tiresias , the blind prophet, enters. Tiresias warns Creon that Polynices should now be urgently buried because the gods are displeased, refusing to accept any sacrifices or prayers from Thebes. Creon accuses Tiresias of being corrupt. All of Greece will despise Creon, and the sacrificial offerings of Thebes will not be accepted by the gods.
Creon assents, leaving with a retinue of men. The chorus delivers an oral ode to the god Dionysus god of wine and of the theater; this part is the offering to their patron god. A messenger enters to tell the leader of the chorus that Antigone has killed herself. The messenger reports that Creon saw to the burial of Polynices. After unsuccessfully attempting to stab Creon, Haemon stabbed himself. He understands that his own actions have caused these events and blames himself.
A second messenger arrives to tell Creon and the chorus that Eurydice has killed herself. With her last breath, she cursed her husband. Creon blames himself for everything that has happened, and, a broken man, he asks his servants to help him inside.
The order he valued so much has been protected, and he is still the king, but he has acted against the gods and lost his children and his wife as a result.
After Creon condemns himself, the leader of the chorus closes by saying that although the gods punish the proud, punishment brings wisdom. Characters[ edit ] Antigone , compared to her beautiful and docile sister, is portrayed as a heroine who recognizes her familial duty.
Her dialogues with Ismene reveal her to be as stubborn as her uncle. Ismene serves as a foil for Antigone, presenting the contrast in their respective responses to the royal decree. She hesitates to bury Polynices because she fears Creon. Creon is the current King of Thebes, who views law as the guarantor of personal happiness.
He can also be seen as a tragic hero, losing everything for upholding what he believed was right. Even when he is forced to amend his decree to please the gods, he first tends to the dead Polynices before releasing Antigone. Haemon is the son of Creon and Eurydice, betrothed to Antigone. Proved to be more reasonable than Creon, he attempts to reason with his father for the sake of Antigone. However, when Creon refuses to listen to him, Haemon leaves angrily and shouts he will never see him again.
He commits suicide after finding Antigone dead. Koryphaios is the assistant to the King Creon and the leader of the Chorus.
He is often interpreted as a close advisor to the King, and therefore a close family friend. Tiresias is the blind prophet whose prediction brings about the eventual proper burial of Polynices.
Portrayed as wise and full of reason, Tiresias attempts to warn Creon of his foolishness and tells him the gods are angry. He manages to convince Creon, but is too late to save the impetuous Antigone. The Chorus , a group of elderly Theban men, is at first deferential to the king. As the play progresses they counsel Creon to be more moderate. Their pleading persuades Creon to spare Ismene. Historical context[ edit ] Antigone was written at a time of national fervor.
In BCE, shortly after the play was performed, Sophocles was appointed as one of the ten generals to lead a military expedition against Samos. Athenians, proud of their democratic tradition, would have identified his error in the many lines of dialogue which emphasize that the people of Thebes believe he is wrong, but have no voice to tell him so.
Athenians would identify the folly of tyranny. Here, the chorus is composed of old men who are largely unwilling to see civil disobedience in a positive light.
The chorus in Antigone lies somewhere in between; it remains within the general moral and the immediate scene, but allows itself to be carried away from the occasion or the initial reason for speaking.
Should someone who attempts to bury him in defiance of Creon be punished in an especially cruel and horrible way? In this play, Creon is not presented as a monster, but as a leader who is doing what he considers right and justified by the state.
The chorus is presented as a group of citizens who, though they may feel uneasy about the treatment of the corpse, respect Creon and what he is doing. The chorus is sympathetic to Antigone only when she is led off to her death.
The city is of primary importance to the chorus. Most of the arguments to save her center on a debate over which course adheres best to strict justice. It is not until the interview with Tiresias that Creon transgresses and is guilty of sin. He had no divine intimation that his edict would be displeasing to the Gods and against their will. He is here warned that it is, but he defends it and insults the prophet of the Gods.
This is his sin, and it is this which leads to his punishment. The terrible calamities that overtake Creon are not the result of his exalting the law of the state over the unwritten and divine law which Antigone vindicates, but are his intemperance which led him to disregard the warnings of Tiresias until it was too late.
This is emphasized by the Chorus in the lines that conclude the play. Creon would be deprived of grandchildren and heirs to his lineage — a fact which provides a strong realistic motive for his hatred against Antigone. This modern perspective has remained submerged for a long time. His interpretation is in three phases: first to consider the essential meaning of the verse, and then to move through the sequence with that understanding, and finally to discern what was nature of humankind that Sophocles was expressing in this poem.
In the first two lines of the first strophe, in the translation Heidegger used, the chorus says that there are many strange things on earth, but there is nothing stranger than man.
Beginnings are important to Heidegger, and he considered those two lines to describe primary trait of the essence of humanity within which all other aspects must find their essence. Those two lines are so fundamental that the rest of the verse is spent catching up with them. The authentic Greek definition of humankind is the one who is strangest of all. Man is deinon in the sense that he is the terrible, violent one, and also in the sense that he uses violence against the overpowering.
Man is twice deinon. When Antigone opposes Creon, her suffering the uncanny, is her supreme action. However, Antigone went back after his body was uncovered and performed the ritual again, an act that seems to be completely unmotivated by anything other than a plot necessity so that she could be caught in the act of disobedience, leaving no doubt of her guilt.
His argument says that had Antigone not been so obsessed with the idea of keeping her brother covered, none of the deaths of the play would have happened.
Levensloop[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] Sophocles werd geboren in v. De jonge Sophocles kreeg een verzorgde opvoeding, zowel op sportief als op artistiek vlak. Volgens de legende kreeg hij in v. In v.
Proloog[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] vss. Antigone vertelt Ismene dat Kreon besloten heeft het lijk van Eteokles plechtig te begraven, maar dat het lijk van Polyneikes , die als landverrader wordt beschouwd, onbegraven moet blijven als prooi voor de roofvogels. Het is niemand toegestaan om hem te betreuren en degene die deze regels toch overtreedt, zal worden gestenigd. Antigone wil Polyneikes toch begraven, omdat ze dat als haar plicht beschouwt, en vraagt Ismene om haar te helpen. Ismene schrikt, weigert en probeert Antigone van haar besluit af te brengen. Dat lukt haar echter niet.