Having subdued the Persian Empire , Alexander the Great proceeded to invade India , the only lands left unconquered by the Macedonian Empire. Alexander the Great proceeded to subdue any remaining resistance to his conquest of the Persian Empire , and found another Persian army at the Persian Gates. His forces were held back, but a local shepherd showed him a way around the Persians. Alexander used this route, and he defeated the Persian army with a flanking attack. With little resistance, Alexander reached the Sogdian Rock and took over all of Bactria.

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Questions or concerns? Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? Let us know. Battle of the Hydaspes, bce , fourth and last pitched battle fought by Alexander the Great during his campaign of conquest in Asia. The fight on the banks of the Hydaspes River in India was the closest Alexander the Great came to defeat. His feared Companion cavalry was unable to subdue fully the courageous King Porus. The forces were numerically quite evenly balanced, although Alexander had more cavalry and Porus fielded war elephants.

Alexander divided his army, leaving a small force with Craterus facing Porus on the ford while taking most of the army to cross a second ford 17 miles 27 km away. When Porus learned that Alexander had advanced over the river, he marched to attack. Porus put his cavalry on the flanks and infantry in the center, with the elephants in front. Alexander posted his heavy infantry in a phalanx in the center, led the right wing cavalry himself, and sent the left wing cavalry under Coenus on a wide, outflanking ride behind a hill.

In the center, the Macedonian phalanx was almost broken by the charging elephants, but eventually drove them off, only to face the Indian infantry. Alexander attacked on the right, but failed to find a gap to exploit with his horsemen. When Coenus returned to the battlefield at the rear of the Indians, Alexander was able to defeat the Indian cavalry and encircle the infantry. Porus reformed his infantry into a defensive block and then offered to surrender if granted generous terms.

Alexander agreed Porus could remain king of Paurava but imposed tribute. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Losses: Macedonian, 1, of 41,; Indian, 12, dead and 9, captured of 50,


Battle of the Hydaspes: Why Porus lost battle to Alexander and yet won?

The Romans considered him the perfect leader. He tried to create a unified world empire by bringing the Eastern and the western culture, together. In fact, Alexander extended his boundaries as far as Punjab, India. Hence, the battle is known as the battle of the Hydaspes. However, a king in India was prepared to challenge him like never before anyone did to Alexander. This King was a mighty prince, Porus.


Battle of the Hydaspes

Alexander later founded the city of Nicaea on the site; this city has yet to be discovered. After fortifying Bactria with 10, men, Alexander commenced his invasion of India through the Khyber Pass. The primary Greek column entered the Khyber Pass, but a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander went through the northern route, taking the fortress of Aornos modern-day Pir-Sar along the way—a place of mythological significance to the Greeks as, according to legend, Herakles had failed to occupy it when he campaigned in India. Alexander could not afford to show any weakness if he wanted to keep the loyalty of the already subdued Indian princes. Although he lost the battle, he became the most successful recorded opponent of Alexander.


Battle of Hydaspes


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