However, no empirical connection has been established between academic achievement and However, no empirical connection has been established between academic achievement and health and nutritional education. Data from 5, 8th graders and 5, 10th graders were included in the study. The hypotheses tested the relationships between health and academic variables, and they examined whether grade level was associated with health and academic variables.
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Results show that there was a minimal improvement in the WG from pre to post. The mean scores were not statistically significant for QOL. QOL is therefore, a dynamic concept that not only incorporates physical, psychological and social domains, but individual perceptions and values of their role function. The well-being of individuals is based on the idea of good health and life satisfaction. Variables such as age and education were correlated to analyze whether it has an impact on the well-being of individual.
The present study indicated that there was no correlation between age and QOL. The findings are corroborated by a study conducted, in which it was hypothesized that increased age would be associated with decreased QOL. The study revealed that increased age was associated with lower QOL in Caucasians, whereas no relationship was observed between age and QOL measures among African Americans.
The environment domain of QOL was positively correlated with the number of years of education [ Table 4 ]. Education has been found to be the protective factor, which increases the QOL. The findings are corroborated by studies, conducted with spinal cord injury, Clayton and Chubon,[ 10 ] found in a sample of persons with spinal injury, that education was associated with perceived life quality.
Education is considered to increase access to work and economic resources. Education increases a sense of control over the life for a person with disabilities and creates opportunities for social relationships. The QOL scale measured the changes in the areas of physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. The results for the IG indicate that there was statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-scores across all domains of QOL [ Table 6 ].
The improvement was not statistically significant from pre to post. The findings were corroborated by a study Reddy et al. The results show that total QOL showed larger effect size physical 1. The NFT as a cognitive rehabilitation procedure emphasized patients to relax. The relaxation in turn has reduced stress experienced by patients. Reduction in stress contributes to positive perception of self, subjective well-being and awareness, thus improving QOL.
Increased QOL, decrease could therefore, be implicated in reduction of post-concussion symptoms following TBI and contributing to improvement in cognitive functions. The mechanism of NFT along with neuronal plasticity contributed to the improvement. Persons with TBI, who tend to have low perceptions of QOL, hence often experience feelings of guilt, failure, and unhappiness. These individuals due to lack of awareness of deficits often have a lack of insight into planning, lack of social judgment, impulsivity, difficulties adjusting to change and interpersonal problems, and low long-term psychological adjustment.
The group was interviewed and assessed on QOL scale. The training focused on enhancing well-being of the person psychologically, the psychological well-being has in turn effected the overall improvement in the QOL.
The improvement could be attributed to NFT. The alpha-theta training Hz alpha and Hz theta guides the individuals to their deepest level of consciousness in order to facilitate and process psychological issues. According to researchers the alpha-theta neurofeedback counteracts increased beta-endorphin levels and promotes stress reduction.
This is accomplished by impacting on those mechanisms, originating in the reticular formation of the brain stem and mediated by the thalamus and the hypothalamus, which govern states of arousal and level of consciousness, including cortical activation Sterman, The results show that there is statistically significant improvement in the post-training in QOL. The results indicated that neurofeedback as training mechanisms can be useful in enhancing the QOL in patients with TBI. The limitation of the study is that there was no follow-up of patients.
Footnotes Conflict of Interest: None. Gururaj G. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injuries: Indian scenario. Neurol Res. Flanagan JC. Measurement of quality of life: Current state of the art. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Brain Inj. Social communication skills in persons with post-acute traumatic brain injury: Three perspectives. Subjective well-being and quality of life following traumatic brain injury in adults: A long-term population-based follow-up.
Five-year outcome after mild head injury: A prospective controlled study. Acta Neurol Scand. Neurofeedback training to enhance learning and memory in patient with traumatic brain injury: A single case study. Indian J Neurotrauma. Psychological Medicine. Tarter RE. Quality of life following liver transplantation. Factors associated with the quality of life of long-term spinal cord injured persons. The disability paradox: High quality of life against all odds. Soc Sci Med. Posttraumatic rehabilitation and 1 year outcome following acute traumatic brain injury TBI : Data from the well defined population based German prospective study Acta Neurochir Suppl.
Relationships among impairment, disability, handicap, and life satisfaction in persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Self-awareness of traumatically brain injured patients in the acute inpatient rehabilitation setting. EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Adv Med Psychother Int J. Sterman M. Biofeedback in the treatment of epilepsy: An overview circa In: White L, Tursky B, editors.
Clinical Biofeedback: Efficacy and Mechanisms. New York: The Guilford Press;
Silent Epidemic: The Effects of Neurofeedback on Quality-of-Life