EL AZAR Y LA NECESIDAD JACQUES MONOD PDF

Hic communionis quae cogito lego, et in libris philosophorum leguntur: Percy C. Different cells work in different ways at different times, however. This too is regulated by genes. In Jacob and Monod proposed the existence of a messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA , a substance whose base sequence is complementary to that of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA in the cell. In advancing the concept of gene complexes that they called operons, Jacob and Monod postulated the existence of a class of genes that regulate the function of other genes by affecting the synthesis of messenger RNA.

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Except for mutations, which are "chance" occurrences that go through the screen of natural selection, DNA is replicated invariantly, and this constitutes the necessity part of Monods argument.

DNAs information for the proteins is directed. As opposed to a teleological pulling toward some end product, Monod calls this directional vector teleonomic. The end products of this are all the various life forms in our biosphere. This teleonomic principle stands in contrast, Monod argues, with vitalism and animism. Vitalism Bergson has life infused with a mysterious impulse that is void of any predetermined purpose.

Animist philosophy Leibniz, Hegel, Teilhard de Chardin, Marx sees a progressive unfolding of purpose in evolution, leading to its highest expression in man. Objective knowledge is, he argues, value free except for the epistemological value of objective knowledge itself.

In addition to his teleonomic principle, Monod makes some interesting observations when he applies his objective knowledge to human affairs. He believes that language was the key selective adaptation that led to the evolution of mind. Bipedalism freed the hands to hunt. Hunting gave our ancestral line a survival advantage that began our cognitive trajectory. Hunting required cooperation and group cohesion and these required language and cognition structures that supported sophisticated communication-based interaction.

Language was the key for the development of our cognition, including most importantly the capacity for simulation. We could act out the strategy for a hunt in our minds, which made us very effective hunters. Monod believes this cognitive development created universal language structures a la Chomsky and mental categories the innate ideas of Descartes; the a priori categories of Kant and probably created other innate capacities as well emotions?

This innateness, he argues, stands in direct contrast to all empiricist philosophy. Even today a good many distinguished minds seem unable to accept or even to understand that from a source of noise natural selection alone and unaided could have drawn all the music of the biosphere. In effect natural selection operates upon the products of chance and can feed nowhere else; but it operates in a domain of very demanding conditions, and from this domain chance is barred.

In contrast, Monod describes the permanent, invariant nature of the organism, at its life core. This view does not negate the dialectic. Rather, it places the thesis part of the dialectic squarely within the organism. The dialectical process begins with life, seeking to live and to live well. We are the initiators of action in the environment that the environment in turn acts upon and both result in our transformation as a species and as individuals.

Where Monod goes astray, and considerably so, is his belief in a value-free ethic of knowledge. This leads him into some very value-laden pronouncements about how society ought to be organized. The foremost problem with that approach is his belief that cognitive sophistication alone is sufficient to solve our survival and life problems. It is interesting that nowhere in this book does Monod talk about human motivation and our emotional make up.

Yet we have ample examples of intelligent people whose intelligence is driven by self-serving ends. Unfortunately, this tribal tendency might be deeply embedded in our species as one of those innate structures that Monod elsewhere indicates might be present, making it fairly immune to cognitive regulation.

If true, a system of checks and balances for the organization of society might better reflect the realities of human nature than, say, relying on rational argument and pleas for reason. Peace does not come from good will and rationality alone.

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El Azar y la Necesidad

Milabar Synthesis necesjdad mRNA is blocked when the repressor is bound to the operator. Prepared sluggishness sometimes while doing between apps Get the ServiceUI. Descargar gratis el libro la rebelion de las ratas DownloadDescargar gratis el libro la rebelion de las ratas. He contends that these lines of thought abandon the postulate of objectivity and also contain the anthropocentric illusion. He says necesivad the important message of science is that in the defining el azar y la necesidad jacques monod a new source of truth which demands revision of ethical premises and a total break with the animist tradition. Monod admits he is more interested in necesidaad and will therefore devote more analysis to it.

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