FM 3-21.10 PDF

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Blank and live fire exercises are a critical part of infantry training, allowing Soldiers to practice infantry tactics in realistic scenarios. Army photo by Sgt. With the lessons from World War I and World War II fresh in their memory, Army infantry leaders discussed how to apply those lessons to redefine the size, combat power, and doctrine of the squad.

From this point, we will discuss how those lessons turned the squad into a weapon system and how those decisions effected the Army in Korea and Vietnam. A Weapon System "A combination of one or more weapons with all related equipment, materials, services, personnel, and means of delivery and deployment if applicable required for self-sufficiency.

This adaptibility allows them to have a symbiotic relationship with armor, artillery, helicopters and other weapon systems. The continual improvements in doctrine, training and equipment morphed the infantry squad from a unit of Soldiers, all with the same equipment, to a more versatile weapon system, capable of taking on different missions. Development of Infantry Specialization Field Manual In the early days of WWII, the German blitzkrieg tactics of the late s created a new paradigm: no longer was warfare fought in trenches, trading inches of territory at a time.

Now, due to the mechanization of infantry units, changes to the front lines were measured in miles. Army began integrating tank battalions with infantry divisions and developed doctrine for tank infantry support. When the situation required, they could also call on tanks and other specialized vehicles equipped with anti-tank guns and mortars to provide fire support. In the s, the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle added better protection, giving the infantry a better platform to fight from while providing increased firepower.

In addition to the improved protection and weapons, the Bradleys were able to keep up with the M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank. In , the Army introduced the M Stryker Combat Vehicle, which was designed to transport a full squad and came in several configurations. With the different models of Strykers, a Stryker Brigade Combat Team closely resembled a s armored infantry regiment.

To help infantry Soldiers keep up with the faster pace, infantry brigade combat teams now have access to a variety of vehicles and helicopters to conduct operations. In addition to traditional maneuver methods, specially identified IBCTs can conduct airborne and air assault operations. Airborne: In , the first of the parachute infantry regiments stood up at Camp Toccoa, Georgia.

Doctrine in FM , Field Service Regulations, Operations , dated , stated: Parachute troops may be considered as the advanced guard element of air troops or other military or naval forces. They constitute a powerful surprise factor and usually are employed in conjunction with air landing or mechanized troops in the path of the main ground effort, or close in rear of the enemy front line.

Air Assault: At the start of Vietnam, helicopters improved infantry movement on the battlefield. They gave planners the capability to deploy forces over the enemy or into positions to block them. With their tactical mobility, helicopters could conduct lightning raids to eliminate enemy command structure, communications, and logistics trails. Lessons learned through the use of helicopters in Vietnam solidified air assault doctrine. At the time of the North Korean invasion, the changes made to infantry squad doctrine included a change in tactics and reducing the squads to nine men.

The weapons intended to support the tactical and doctrinal changes were still under development. The effect of the developmental lag for suitable weapons and a change in doctrine meant Soldiers had to go into combat with outdated weapons and without a suitable lightweight machine gun. Einar H. Ingman, Jr. On February 26, , during an attack on enemy positions, the leading squads of the assault platoon were pinned down by withering fire wounding both squad leaders and several men.

Ingman, a corporal at the time, assumed command, reorganized and combined the two squads; then, while moving from position to position, he designated fields of fire and gave advice and encouragement to the men. Medal of Honor recepient Sgt. Ingman Jr. Army Photo Upon discovering an enemy machine gun pinned down his men, he charged it, threw a grenade into the position and killed the crew with rifle fire.

As Ingman charged the second position, he was seriously wounded by fragments from an enemy grenade. With incredible determination, he killed the entire gun crew before falling unconscious. As a result, his squad secured its objective, forcing more than enemy soldiers to retreat. Each fire team in the squad was made up of a fire team leader, an automatic rifleman with an M60, an assistant gunner, and a grenadier armed with an M79 Grenade Launcher.

The balance of the squad was made up of three riflemen who, depending on the mission, could be attached to either of the two fire teams. A typical configuration consisted of two riflemen attached to Alpha fire team and the third attached to Bravo fire team.

However, the negative characteristics of the M14 design troubled many infantry soldiers. Chambered in 7. These factors limited its effectiveness during patrols in the jungle. With the early versions of the rifle designated for the special forces community, it quickly became a favorite due to its light weight and shorter length, which made it ideal for the jungle.

The rifle initially had some problems, which were fixed in when it was modified and reissued as the MA1 Service Rifle. Franklin D.

Miller, 5th Special Forces Group, served as team leader of an American-Vietnamese long-range reconnaissance patrol. On Jan. Miller, knowing the enemy was alerted, quickly administered first aid and directed the team to defensive positions.

Within minutes, Miller saw the lead element of a platoon-size enemy force moving to their location. Concerned for their safety, he directed the team to a more secure position while he remained behind to meet the attack. Staff Sgt. Army photo Single-handedly, Miller repulsed determined attacks by a numerically superior enemy force and forced them to withdraw. Miller then rejoined his team and organized an emergency extraction.

As a helicopter landed to pick up the patrol, the enemy launched another attack, driving off the rescue helicopter. Miller then led his team in an attack to drive back the enemy before it could overrun his small patrol.

Although every member of his team was injured, including himself, Miller moved to engage the attackers. From his position, Miller gallantly repelled additional attacks by the enemy before a relief force reached the patrol location. Nixon on June 15, After his actions in Vietnam, Miller remained in the Army, eventually retiring as a command sergeant major in After his retirement, he continued to visit Fort Bragg and Camp Mackall, North Carolina, to brief students and share his message: "Share your fears only with yourself, share your courage with others, and you will inspire people to do incredible things.

They tested several variations of weapon configurations, manpower, and firepower to determine a definitive answer. These studies concluded that a squad leader could effectively control five to seven men.

With this evidence, the Army returned to the nine-man squad doctrine which continued throughout operations and wars in the post-Cold War years. To keep up this progress, Army leaders continue to research and develop improvements in squad resiliency and lethality, such as improved weapons, communication equipment and improved support services, like engineering and medical.

Since Sept. The Army has not faced an opponent in recent history who could meet them on equal footing. However, with growing threats from North Korea, the emergence of China, and the resurgence of Russia, U.

Army leaders realize that the possibility of hostilities with a peer or near-peer competitor is likely. As a result, the Army continues to maintain dominance, support Soldiers on and off the battlefield, and adapt doctrine to meet challenges posed by an ever-changing environment.

Notes Defense Technical Information Center. March 8, FM The Evolution of the U. Melody, Paul Ney, V. Washington D. Integrations of Armored Forces in the U. Fort Leavenworth: U. Army CGSC. US Army. Field Manual Headquarters, Department of the Army. Field Manual Operations. Dougherty, K. The Evolution of Air Assault. Hughes, S. United States Army. Center of Military History. Einar Ingman Jr. Cranfield, B.

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