GRANTHA ALPHABET PDF

Grantha was a major southern Indian script until World War II, but after independence in , Hindi was promoted as the national language as Gandhi had recommended and hence the standard Devanagari script started receiving more attention and usage, even in South India. More and more Sanskrit books were printed in Devanagari by publishers desiring to cater to a nation-wide audience, and thus the usage of Grantha for the purpose decreased. The rise of the pro-Tamil movement, too, in the second half of the 20th century, further eroded the use of Grantha in Tamil Nadu, one of the strongholds of the script. Even if the script may no longer be in widespread general use, one source reports that about 10, Vedic scholars and students in Tamil Nadu and about 15, Hindu temple priests in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and elsewhere do use the script daily. A much larger number of other people interested in Sanskrit and Vedic have learnt the script to varying extents and use it occasionally. One final note: as with a number of other South Asian scripts, Grantha has its own number system, unusual in the way it wrote fractions.

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This stems from the practice of binding inscribed palm leaves using a length of thread held by knots. Grantha was widely used to write Sanskrit in the Tamil-speaking parts of South Asia from about the 5th-century CE into the modern times. The Grantha script was also historically used for writing Manipravalam, a blend of Tamil and Sanskrit which was used in the exegesis of Manipravalam texts.

This evolved into a fairly complex writing system which required that Tamil words be written in the Tamil script and Sanskrit words be written in the Grantha script.

By the 15th century, this had evolved to the point that both scripts would be used within the same word — if the root was derived from Sanskrit it would be written in the Grantha script, but any Tamil suffixes which were added to it would be written using the Tamil script.

This system of writing went out of use when Manipravalam declined in popularity, but it was customary to use the same convention in printed editions of texts originally written in Manipravalam until the middle of the 20th century. It is also used in many religious almanacs to print traditional formulaic summaries of the coming year. They were used by the Pallava in some inscriptions. The Pallavas also produced a distinctive script separate from the Grantha family. Inscription of later Pallavas and Pandiyan Nedunchezhiyan are also examples of this variety of Grantha Script.

This variety was in vogue from CE to CE. Two varieties are found in modern era Grantha texts: the square form used by Hindus, and the round form used by Jains. The modern Grantha is illustrated below and shares similarities with the Modern Tamil Script. Sometimes, consonants in a cluster may form ligatures. Ligatures are normally preferred whenever they exist. If no ligatures exist, "stacked" forms of consonants are written, just as in Kannada and Telugu, with the lowest member of the stack being the only "live" consonant and the other members all being vowel-less.

Note that ligatures may be used as members of stacks also. These are often called "ya-phalaa" and "ra-vattu" in other Indic scripts. Below is an image of a palm leaf manuscript with Sanskrit written in Grantha script: A manuscript page.

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Grantha script

This stems from the practice of binding inscribed palm leaves using a length of thread held by knots. Grantha was widely used to write Sanskrit in the Tamil-speaking parts of South Asia from about the 5th-century CE into the modern times. The Grantha script was also historically used for writing Manipravalam, a blend of Tamil and Sanskrit which was used in the exegesis of Manipravalam texts. This evolved into a fairly complex writing system which required that Tamil words be written in the Tamil script and Sanskrit words be written in the Grantha script. By the 15th century, this had evolved to the point that both scripts would be used within the same word — if the root was derived from Sanskrit it would be written in the Grantha script, but any Tamil suffixes which were added to it would be written using the Tamil script.

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Grantha alphabet

See Article History Alternative Title: Grantha script Grantha alphabet, writing system of southern India developed in the 5th century ad and still in use. The earliest inscriptions in Grantha, dating from the 5th—6th century ad, are on copper plates from the kingdom of the Pallavas near modern Madras. The form of the alphabet used in these inscriptions, classified as Early Grantha, is seen primarily on copper plates and stone monuments. Middle Grantha, the form of the script used from the mid-7th to the end of the 8th century, is also known from inscriptions on copper and stone. The script used from the 9th to the 14th century is called Transitional Grantha; from about on, the modern script has been in use.

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This stems from the practice of binding inscribed palm leaves using a length of thread held by knots. Although Sanskrit is now mostly written in the Devanagari script, the Grantha script was widely used to write Sanskrit in the Tamil -speaking parts of South Asia until the 19th century. Scholars believe that the Grantha script was used when the Vedas were first put into writing around the 5th century CE. The Grantha script was also historically used for writing Tamil—Sanskrit Manipravalam , a blend of Tamil and Sanskrit which was used in the exegesis of Sanskrit texts. This evolved into a fairly complex writing system which required that Tamil words be written in the Tamil vatteluthu and Sanskrit words be written in the Grantha script.

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