While used in multiple sports concussion studies, it has not been applied to the field of movement disorders. Subjects performed two trials of reading out loud single-digit numbers separated by varying spacing on three test cards that were of different formats. The sum time of the faster trial was designated the KD score and compared across the three groups. PD patients were found to have a slower rapid number naming speed compared to controls. Although clinicians routinely assess many non-motor symptoms such as those involving cognition, mood, and sleep, visual complaints are rarely evaluated quantitatively. PD patients frequently complain of blurred vision, double vision, and difficulty with reading.
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Published online Feb 2. Corresponding author. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Laura J. Received Sep 21; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a cause of short- and long-term neurologic symptoms among athletes. The King-Devick K-D test is based on measurement of the speed of rapid number naming reading aloud single-digit numbers from 3 test cards , and captures impairment of eye movements, attention, language, and other correlates of suboptimal brain function.
We investigated the K-D test as a potential rapid sideline screening for concussion in a cohort of boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Methods: The K-D test was administered prefight and postfight. Differences in postfight K-D scores and changes in scores from prefight to postfight were compared for athletes with head trauma during the fight vs those without. Those with loss of consciousness showed the greatest worsening from prefight to postfight. High levels of test-retest reliability were observed intraclass correlation coefficient 0.
Conclusions: The K-D test is an accurate and reliable method for identifying athletes with head trauma, and is a strong candidate rapid sideline screening test for concussion. Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention in the lay press, but has been a topic of interest in the medical literature for nearly a decade.
The King-Devick K-D test is based on measurement of the speed of rapid number naming. We determined if athletes with head trauma and loss of consciousness during matches differed in terms of their postfight K-D time scores or with regard to changes in scores from prefight to postfight.
For this cross-sectional study, boxers and MMA fighters were recruited and enrolled prior to sparring sessions and matches conducted in the Boston, MA, area.
Boxers were amateurs recruited by their gym manager and invited to participate in 3-round sparring sessions. Standard and routine headgear and sparring-grade boxing gloves were worn. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants and principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki were followed. The King-Devick test. The K-D test is based on measurement of the speed of rapid number naming. Standardized instructions are used, and the test requires less than 2 minutes to administer.
The K-D test includes one practice demonstration card and 3 test cards, as shown in figure 1. To perform the K-D test, participants were asked to read the numbers on each card from left to right as quickly as possible but without making any errors.
The sum of the 3 test card time scores constituted the summary score for the entire test, the K-D time score. Numbers of errors made in reading the test cards were recorded.
Slowing of Number Naming Speed by King-Devick Test in Parkinson's Disease
The King-Devick test as a determinant of head trauma and concussion in boxers and MMA fighters