Zushura These natural products are also responsible for the taste effects utilized in flavoring . Methanol extract 10 g was further partitioned between aqueous methanol and ethylacetate to give the ethylacetate fraction. Classes of phytochemical compounds identified in Lonchocarpus cyanescens [fabaceae] stem, leaf and root methanol and hexane fractions. However, in contrast to chlorpromazine, a typical antipsychotic, the extracts did not induce cataleptic behaviour in the animals.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Results show seven compounds were responsible for Phytol Phytochemical screening of stem, leaf, and root methanol extracts of Lonchocarpus cyanescens reveal presence of following seven classes of metabolites: saponin, tannin, steroid, terpenoid, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins and flavonoids.
Partitioning of methanol extract from dried leaf of it with ethylacetate gave fraction, which was chromatographed using gradient elution. TLC with high Rf was used in monitoring elution. Above mentioned metabolites may be responsible for literature acclaimed bio-activities L. This paper presents details of above results which are new in literature.
Introduction Lonchocarpus cyanescens Benth. Leguminosae—Papilionoideae, Fabaceae is a deciduous scan dent shrub . The plant has alternate leaves, flat fruits which are 1 - 5 seeded, oblong pod pointed at both ends . The plant is utilized in traditional medicine. In Senegal, the leaves are used as a condiment eaten with couscous. Leaves are used as laxative. In Benin, leaf sap is drunk against intestinal disorders and dysentery.
A decoction of leafy twigs and roots is given to women during or after childbirth and is also taken as an aphrodisiac. In Nigeria, this decoction is used to treat arthritic conditions, venereal diseases and diarrhea. Ground root is applied to yaws and washing with water containing powdered root helps to cure sores [5, 8,10,11]. Oleanane derivatives and glycyrrhetinic acid are responsible for the antiinflammatory properties and relief of peptic ulcers observed in L.
The triterpenes act against arthritis [2,11,12,15,16]. These natural products are also responsible for the taste effects utilized in flavoring . Bioactivity effects of Lonchocarpus cyanescens have been demonstrated in its anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and its relief on ulcer. It has some additional pharmacological properties including antiviral, antifungal, anti-protozoal, and antibacterial activities.
The anti-inflammatory activity of L. It also has antitussive properties, effective as expectorant, treatment of ulcer, and flavoring for masking bitter taste of drugs like quinine. The acid in ulcer treatment, inhibits the enzymes that metabolize the prostaglandins, PGE2a to their inactive metabolites. This increases the level of prostaglandins in digestive system.
These prostaglandins inhibit gastric secretion but stimulate pancreatic secretion and mucous secretion in the intestines. This may be the reason why glycyrrhetinic acid is said to relieve peptic ulcers [2,12,15,17]. A triterpene component of the plant has been found active against arthritis [2,12,13].
The plant is an active anti-arthritic remedy utilized with 3 other plants in Igbo tribal ethnomedicine . Adewuyi et al. Their investigation revealed that linolenic and oleic acids are its dominant fatty acids with neutral lipids. GC-MS analyses of the seed oil showed phytol, sterols, beta-tocopherol and hydrocarbons are in the unsaponifiable matters of the oils; while HPLC showed presence of glycolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosylmonoacylglycerol and monogalactosylmonoacylglycerol].
We have identified more promising families of Nigerian plants from our collations of standardized questionnaires on anti-malaria herbs utilized in South-western Nigeria ethno-medicine comprising of Ogun, Oyo and Lagos states. Results of our recent studies revealed forty plants were utilized as anti-malaria herb . We report our studies on volatile and phytochemical metabolites of one of them, a Fabaceae—Lonchocarpus cyanescens leaf, stem and root.
Material and Methods 2. Plant was authenticated at the Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, where voucher samples were deposited and signed certificate of identification was obtained [Prof Ayodele and Mr Donatus O.
Dr Soladoye M. More plant samples for extractions were obtained from a farmland in the University of Ibadan Campus, Nigeria and identified by Dr. The essential oils were procured in 0. Each of the oils had distinct characteristic pleasant smell.
Leaf, stem and root cold methanol extracts of Lonchocarpus cyanescens were fractionated using distilled hexane to get methanol and hexane fractions. The leaf residue and stem interface were also obtained as fractions. Fractions were subjected to phytochemical analysis. Standard methods such as N. Lata and V. Dubey  were used in establishing classes of secondary metabolites present in each fraction. More Extractions and Isolations More leaf of L.
The extract was concentrated to give dark green solid Methanol extract 10 g was further partitioned between aqueous methanol and ethylacetate to give the ethylacetate fraction.
The ethylacetate fraction 2 g was chromatographed on silica gel column eluting with increasing gradient of n-hexane: ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate: methanol to give seventy ml fractions. Similar fractions as determined by TLC were pooled together giving 10 combined fractions.
General Experimental Procedure Melting points were measured on a Gallenkamp melting point apparatus. Thin layer chromatographic separations were carried out on Merck precoated silica gel sheets 60 F 0.
Glass column of varying sizes depending on weight of extract and silica gel 70 - mesh were used for open column chromatography. Results and Discussion 3. Seven prominent compounds in leaf make up Alcohols The two oils contain hydrocarbons [L 6. Figure 2. Table 1. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Lonchocarpus cyanescens leaf.
Table 2. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Lonchocarpus cyanescens stem. Other compositions in leaf are ketone 2. Phytochemical Screenings to Obtain Classes of Metabolites in Leaf, Stem and Root Extracts Phytochemical screenings indicated extracts contain seven important classes of secondary metabolites which are saponin, tannin, steroid, terpenoid, cardiac glycoside, phlobatannins and flavonoids Table 4. Two Compounds Isolated from Ethylacetate Extract Partitioning of methanol extract of dried leaf of Lonchocarpus cyanescens with ethylacetate gave the ethylacetate extract, which was chromatographed using gradient elution.
Each was loaded on reversed phase HPLC, and was further purified by recrystallization. Seven compounds in leaf made up Cold soaked methanol extract which was defattened with hexane, and volatile oils of leaf L , stem B and root R of Lonchocarpus cyanescens prominently utilized as antimalaria in Nigerian ethno-medicine were screened.
Phytochemical screenings indicated extracts contain seven important classes of secondary metabolites which are saponin, tannin, steroid, terpenoid, cardiacglycoside, phlobatannins and flavonoids Table 4. Phytochemical analyses of the leaf ethylacetate extract yielded two triterpenoids [1 and 2] see Table 5. We suggest these reported metabolites are responsible for the acclaimed bio-activities L.
This is reported for the first time. Work is ongoing on other aspects of L. Comparison between the chemical compositions of leaf and stem volatile oils.
Table 4. Classes of phytochemical compounds identified in Lonchocarpus cyanescens [fabaceae] stem, leaf and root methanol and hexane fractions. Table 5. Moronkola, A. Adedeji, I. Oyewole, I. Ogunwande and I. Cardon and P. Jarsen and D. Cardon, Eds. Perkin and F. Jukema, N. Wulijarni-Soetjipto, R.
Lemmens and J. Lemmens and N. Wulijarni-Soetjipto, Eds. Iwu and B. Ogbeide and M. Promsattha, R. Taylor, M. Tempesta and M.
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Gasho Leaf and stem essential oils of Lonchocarpus cyanescens Benth. Cyanescenx Senegal, the leaves are used as a condiment eaten with couscous. GC-MS analyses of the seed oil showed phytol, sterols, beta-tocopherol and hydrocarbons are in the unsaponifiable matters of the oils; while HPLC showed presence of glycolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosylmonoacylglycerol and monogalactosylmonoacylglycerol]. In Nigeria, this decoction is used to treat arthritic conditions, venereal diseases and diarrhea. There are no pictures available for this datasheet If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact: Each of the oils had distinct characteristic pleasant smell. Taxonomic Tree Top of page Domain: Results show seven compounds were responsible for Partitioning of methanol extract of dried leaf of Lonchocarpus cyanescens with ethylacetate gave the ethylacetate lonhcocarpus, which was chromatographed using gradient elution. Yoruba indigo Philenoptera cyanescens syn.
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