ANAPLASMA OVIS PDF

University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece D. Chochlakis, Y. Tselentis, A. Ioannou Corresponding author.

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Transmission[ edit ] Anaplasmosis is classified as a tick-borne disease. It can be contracted from tick bites which contain Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The most common tick that carries the bacterium is Ixodes scapularis , also known as the black-legged tick or the deer tick. Anemia may be severe and result in cardiovascular changes such as an increase in heart rate.

Blood in the urine may occur due to the lysis of red blood cells. General systemic signs such as diarrhea , anorexia, and weight loss may also be present. Several species of rickettsial bacteria cause anaplasmosis in ruminants: Cattle: Anaplasma centrale - found mainly in South America , Africa and the Middle East [6] Sheep and goats: Prevention[ edit ] Vaccines against anaplasmosis are available.

Carrier animals should be eliminated from flocks. Tick control may also be useful, although it can be difficult to implement. After treatment most animals become resistant to the disease. Supportive therapy such as blood products and fluids may be necessary. It is also a seemingly increasing antibody in humans in Europe. Early in the 20th century, this disease was considered one of major economic consequence in the western United States.

In the s and s, control of ticks through new acaricides and practical treatment with prolonged-action antibiotics , notably tetracycline , has led to the point where the disease is no longer considered a major problem. The disease affects immunoglobulin G, therefore G-specific antibody levels can be used to diagnose the disease.

In Australia, bovine anaplasmosis, caused by A. It was probably introduced as early as by cattle from Indonesia infested with the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

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Transmission[ edit ] Anaplasmosis is classified as a tick-borne disease. It can be contracted from tick bites which contain Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The most common tick that carries the bacterium is Ixodes scapularis , also known as the black-legged tick or the deer tick. Anemia may be severe and result in cardiovascular changes such as an increase in heart rate. Blood in the urine may occur due to the lysis of red blood cells. General systemic signs such as diarrhea , anorexia, and weight loss may also be present. Several species of rickettsial bacteria cause anaplasmosis in ruminants: Cattle: Anaplasma centrale - found mainly in South America , Africa and the Middle East [6] Sheep and goats: Prevention[ edit ] Vaccines against anaplasmosis are available.

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Anaplasmosis

Bovine Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale is an intracellular erythroparasite of cattle that produces severe hemolytic anemia and is of major economic importance. Endemic areas in the U. The disease is transmitted by several species of ticks and is called tick-borne fever. After infection, there is an incubation period of several weeks followed by a period during which parasitemia increases rapidly and is quickly followed by precipitous drop in hematocrit. The clinical syndrome is one of acute onset, severe anemia with icterus, fever, anorexia, dehydration and depression. Unlike Babesia species, hemoglobinuria does not occur as the hemolysis is extravascular in the spleen and bone marrow. With acute infection, cattle can die or suffer abortion.

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Biology[ edit ] A. It is 0. The bacterium first resides in an early endosome , where it acquires nutrients for binary fission and grows into small groups called morulae. This bacterium prefers to grow within myeloid or granulocytic cells. This disease was first identified in , although this pathogen was known to cause veterinary disease since

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